This disease typically begins in the sigmoid colon and/or rectum, and then usually progresses until the entire colon is affected. Ulcerative colitis involves only the colonic mucosa, and the lesions are uniform and continuous with no areas of normal tissue interspersed between the diseased mucosa.
It is seen in both sexes equally, although white and Jewish people are more often affected. A person is five times more likely to get it if one parent has the condition. Peak occurrence is from 15-35 years of age, although any age is susceptible.
About half of patients with ulcerative colitis have mild symptoms. Ulcerative colitis may also cause problems such as arthritis, inflammation of the eye, liver disease (fatty liver, hepatitis, cirrhosis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis), osteoporosis, skin rashes, anemia, and kidney stones. No one knows for sure why problems occur outside the colon. Scientists think these complications may occur when the immune system triggers inflammation in other parts of the body. These problems are usually mild and go away when the colitis is treated.
A common subcategory of ulcerative colitis is ulcerative proctitis. For approximately 30% of all patients with ulcerative colitis, the illness begins as ulcerative proctitis. In this form of the disease, bowel inflammation is limited to the rectum. Because of its limited extent (usually less than the six inches of the rectum), ulcerative proctitis tends to be a milder form of ulcerative colitis. It is associated with fewer complications and offers a better outlook than more widespread disease.
In order to confirm the diagnosis, testing may include barium x-rays of the upper and lower GI tract, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and sometimes colonoscopy. During these tests, biopsies may be obtained.
Signs, symptoms & indicators of Ulcerative Colitis
Elevated ESR or High ESR
Regular/occasional/frequent painful urge to defecate
Significant/frequent blood in stools
Ulcerative colitis can cause bloody, watery or mucousy bowel movements which may consist only of blood and pus.
Mucous in stools
If the disease is limited to the rectosigmoidal area then stools may be normal or dry although there can also be constipation. Rectal mucous, which can be high in red and white blood cells, accompanies stools or occurs between bowel movements.
(Very) frequent stools or normal stool frequency
Ulcerative colitis may result in an increased urgency to defecate, up to 10 or 20 times per day.
Having very watery/having loose stools
(Very/tendency to) infrequent stools
Occasional painful urge to defecate
Having hard stools or having normal stool texture
(Right/left) lower abdominal ache
Severe/severe left/severe right lower abdominal pain
Occasional/frequent unexplained fevers
In severe acute attacks there may be fever.
Having a moderate/having a slight/having a high fever
Conditions that suggest Ulcerative Colitis
Because people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), like ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, have a much higher risk of both thromboses and osteoporosis, a team of researchers from McGill University in Montreal explored the idea that homocysteine excess may play an important role in this chronic gastrointestinal disease.
To test this hypothesis, they measured homocysteine levels in the plasma of 65 patients with IBD and in 127 healthy controls. Their results revealed a striking difference: The patients with IBD had nearly a six-fold increased incidence of hyperhomocysteinemia – having homocysteine levels above the normal range – compared to controls.
About one in every seven patients in the IBD group had hyperhomocysteinemia. As expected, those with vitamin B12 deficiency tended to have higher homocysteine levels. Yet researchers were also surprised to find that 80% of the IBD patients with hyperhomocysteinemia had normal blood levels of vitamins.
This suggests that homocysteine imbalances could be an early warning sign of B-vitamin deficiency inside cells – one that occurs well before vitamin levels actually decline in serum. It is still too early to tell if treating high homocysteine could actually reduce IBD symptoms in patients.
Importantly, as homocysteine levels rose in the patients with IBD, so did the clinical ratings of IBD disease severity, including its length of duration and the use of steroid medications to treat it. [Am J Gastroenterol. 2001 96(7): pp.2143-9]
All inflammatory bowel disease patients are prone to low serum folate levels. The drug sulfasalazine depletes the body of folic acid, so anyone taking sulfasalazine should be supplementing their diet with folic acid.
When the immune system triggers inflammation in other parts of the body because of ulcerative colitis, kidney stones may result. This influence is usually mild and stones may not be a problem once the colitis is treated.
Risk factors for Ulcerative Colitis
Based on a study of 3,545 people who received live measles vaccine as children, their rate of developing ulcerative colitis was 2.5 times higher (3 times higher for Crohn’s) compared to an unvaccinated group.
Colitis in family members
Crohn’s disease affects men and women equally and seems to run in some families. About 20% of people with Crohn’s disease have a blood relative with some form of IBD, most often a brother or sister and sometimes a parent or child. A person with one parent who had colitis is five times more likely to have the condition themselves.
A variety of bacterial pathogens can cause severe gastrointestinal symptoms such as bloody diarrhea, fever or abdominal pain. In addition, many of these intestinal microbes can exacerbate or cause flare-ups of symptoms in patients who already have ulcerative colitis.
History/significant amounts/trace amounts of occult blood
Absence of occult blood
Long term stress increases the risk of Ulcerative Colitis flare-ups, according to a study by Susan Levenstein, MD, at the Nuovo Regina Margherita Hospital in Rome. [American Journal of Gastroenterology, May 2000]
Colitis in remission or colitis
Absence of ulcerative colitis
Some/possible clubbing of digits or clubbing of toes and fingers
Absence of clubbing
Ulcerative Colitis suggests the following may be present
Due to blood and electrolyte loss, as well as the need to prevent further tissue damage, early diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease is important.
Ulcerative Colitis can lead to
All inflammatory bowel disease patients are prone to low serum folate levels. The drug sulfasalazine depletes the body of folic acid, so anyone taking sulfasalazine should be supplementing their diet with folic acid.
Recommendations for Ulcerative Colitis
Dr. McCann, originally with Kaiser Permanente in Ohio, has pioneered a dramatic, experimental treatment for inflammatory bowel disease which has induced a rapid remission in 16 out of 20 patients with ulcerative colitis. A two-day course of multiple broad-spectrum antibiotics to “decontaminate” the gut is followed by administration of defined strains of E. coli, and Lactobacillus acidophilus to produce a “reflorastation” of the colon. Others have not achieved this same degree of success.
In another clinical trial, 77% of those treated with a probiotic bacteria mixture experienced relief of their mild to moderate ulcerative colitis. Of the 34 patients treated, 26 demonstrated improvement in their condition, with most of those experiencing a complete remission. Only three patients found their condition worsened after the treatment. [American Journal of Gastroenterology July 2005; 100(7):1539-46]
The mixture of eight lactic acid bacterial species is believed to work by:
See the link between Ulcerative colitis and Slippery Elm.
Aloe vera has known anti-inflammatory properties. However, it has not been studied specifically for use in treating inflammation in UC.
Slippery elm’s soothing mucilage effect has been used for disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. It is part of the herbal combination called “Robert’s Formula”, which is widely prized by naturopathic physicians for such intestinal inflammations as gastritis, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. For digestive disorders, taking 500-1,000mg of powder tid is often recommended. It may be used in lozenge form as well.
Fifty-five subjects with fibromyalgia, 33 with hypertension, and 9 with ulcerative colitis consumed 10gm of pure chlorella in tablet form and 100mL of a liquid containing an extract of chlorella each day for 2 or 3 months. Daily dietary supplementation with chlorella was seen to reduce high blood pressure, lower serum cholesterol levels, accelerate wound healing and enhance immune functions. Researchers concluded that the potential of chlorella to relieve symptoms, improve quality of life, and normalize body functions in patients with fibromyalgia, hypertension, or ulcerative colitis suggests that larger, more comprehensive clinical trials of chlorella are warranted. [Altern Ther Health Med. 2001 May-Jun; 7(3): pp.79-91. Review]
At the end of the second month, full examinations and interviews were completed to determine any improvements in the ulcerative colitis patients’ condition. These examinations were performed to determine the disease activity index (DAI) — the most commonly used objective assessment for determining the state of inflammation of the colon. The DAI has four subscales: stool frequency, rectal bleeding, mucosal appearance, and physician’s overall assessment. Each subclass is scored from 0 to 3, thus the maximum score for the DAI is 12. Every participant’s symptoms improved after adding chlorella to their diets. The examinations revealed significantly less inflammation. General assessment indicated that the patients’ overall ulcerative colitis had significantly improved. The average DAI decreased from an average of 7.2 to 2.8. That’s nearly a sixty percent reduction in symptoms.
One small, controlled, double-blind trial has shown that boswellia extract may be helpful for ulcerative colitis. [Eur J Med Res 1997;2: pp.37-43]
Comfrey has a reputation for promoting healing in stomach ulcers, hiatal hernia and ulcerative colitis.
Short fasts can be beneficial, giving the entire organism an opportunity to restore its cellular and immunogenic integrity.
In [Triumph Over Disease by Fasting And Natural Diet] 1977 by Dr. Jack Goldstein (D.P.M.), Dr. Goldstein gives a detailed account of a six-week fast he undertook in a controlled environment and under the supervision of a doctor – which literally saved his life. He also describes his new way of life based on the principles of a natural vegetarian diet.
Dave Wilkerson, President, World Challenge, author of ‘The Cross and the Switchblade’ and ‘The Vision’
“For the past 15 years I suffered from acute colitis, with constant pain and much bleeding. It drained me physically–I was always tired. A year ago I got desperate before the Lord, praying ‘Lord, I can’t minister to this huge congregation and keep all these ministries to the needy going unless You heal my bowels. I am at my wits end; I’m too weary to go on’. The Holy Spirit directed me to nutrition for healing. I always made fun of health nuts and all the claims being made for alternative health plans. The Holy Spirit taught me what to do: I got off sugar, I drink the juice of carrots and apples daily. I drink Aim’s Green Barley…..I have been completely healed! I have more energy than I had at thirty years of age, and I have never felt better in my life….”
Please see the comment under Ulcerative Colitis and Juicing.
Approach a high fiber diet cautiously during periods of inflammation, as it may aggravate the condition. As you stabilize, fiber and unrefined foods are important to continue the health of the colon.
A study found Plantago ovata seed (the whole psyllium seed, not just the husk) at 10gm bid to be as effective as the drug mesalamine for maintaining remission in patients with ulcerative colitis. In addition, the Plantago ovata seed may help prevent colon cancer, a common complication of ulcerative colitis, because it increases colonic butyrate levels.
It may be wise to avoid the food additive carrageenan, found in various foods such as apple cider, hot dogs, most ice creams and prepared sauces and jellies, as it can produce inflammation and immunodeficiency and has been found to cause colitis and anaphylaxis in humans.
Lymphocytic colitis is a form of microscopic colitis usually characterized by watery diarrhea and often associated with biopsy-defined celiac disease. Two patients with lymphocytic colitis and normal small intestinal biopsies who were administered 40gm of added dietary gluten for four consecutive weeks are presented. Small intestinal biopsies from multiple sites in the proximal small bowel were done after three and four weeks to determine whether pathological changes in latent celiac disease could be induced in these patients with a high gluten-containing diet. In addition, colorectal biopsies were done to determine whether the colitis was sensitive to oral gluten. No alterations in the small intestinal biopsies were detected in either patient and no changes occurred in colitis severity. Although microscopic forms of colitis have been linked to celiac disease, this study indicates that lymphocytic colitis is a heterogeneous clinicopathological disorder that, in some patients, is independent of any gluten-induced intestinal pathological changes. [Can J Gastroenterol. 1996 Nov-Dec;10(7):436-9]
Foods should be eaten slowly and be well chewed. Eat in a calm atmosphere; do not read or watch television while eating. Any influence that may disrupt good digestion should be avoided.
The Promise Of Low Dose Naltrexone Therapy: Potential Benefits in Cancer, Autoimmune, Neurological and Infectious Disorders. By Elaine Moore, co-author SammyJo Wilkinson Foreword by Dr. Yash Agrawal, MD, PhD.
This is perhaps the first, and so far only book on LDN, and as such represents a milestone in the effort to bring LDN into mainstream use. Written by Elaine Moore, a high level science writer with a portfolio of previous accomplishments, her LDN book is perhaps somewhat technical and may be difficult for the untrained non-professional to follow. It delves into the sophisticated jargon of the medical research world. For example, in Chapter 5 on LDN and Cancer, there is a discussion of Zagon’s work on Cyclin dependent kinases, P53 and protein 21 and how this relates to inhibition of cancer by LDN.
However, in addition to the esoteric technical sections of the book, there are also chapters devoted to the lay reader interested in learning how LDN can help them on a practical level. A listing of dispensing practitioners was included which I found contained my own office address and phone number.
The book is highly recommended for other health care practitioners who wish to get quickly up to speed in this new area of medicine which is destined to become the medical paradigm of the 21st century, casting a giant shadow over the rest of mainstream medicine.[ Comments on the LDN book by Jeffrey Dach MD]
Mild symptoms of UC may respond to antidiarrheal medications and dietary changes. Prescription medications may be used to treat mild symptoms and keep the disease in remission. Usually, corticosteroids (such as hydrocortisone or prednisone) are given for a few weeks to control active disease. Once inflammation is under control, aminosalicylates (such as sulfasalazine or mesalamine) can be used to maintain remission.
Moderate to severe symptoms of UC usually require corticosteroids to control inflammation. The required dose of steroids may be higher than that necessary to treat mild colitis.
Canasa Rectal Suppositories contains 500mg of mesalamine. Sulfasalazine has been used in the treatment of ulcerative colitis for over 55 years. It is split by bacterial action in the colon into sulfapyridine (SP) and mesalamine (5-ASA). It is thought that the mesalamine component only is therapeutically active in ulcerative colitis.
Immunomodulator medications, such as azathioprine (AZA) or 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP), also may be needed for severe cases that cannot be controlled with aminosalicylates alone. These medications suppress the body’s immune system to prevent inflammation, and may be needed to avoid the long-term use of steroids.
Using an epidermal growth factor (EGF) enema with oral medication is effective in treating the ulcers and inflammation that ulcerative colitis causes, a study shows. EGF is known to stimulate the healing process. The research shows that the stimulating properties in an EGF enema can help speed up the healing process of the ulcers, improve symptoms, and lead to more remissions.
To determine EGF’s effectiveness, researchers split 24 volunteers into two groups and evaluated them at two-, four-, and 12-week intervals. Half of the patients were men. Each participant gave himself or herself an enema and retained the solution for more than 45 minutes per day for 14 days. One group had enemas containing EGF, but the comparison group did not. All of the volunteers also combined their treatment with the ulcerative colitis drug mesalamine, which was taken orally. At the start, all of them had common symptoms of ulcerative colitis, including: fatigue, weight loss, loss of appetite, rectal bleeding, and loss of body fluids and nutrients
At two weeks, the group taking the EGF enemas showed significant decreases in symptoms, and 10 out of 12 went into remission, compared with 1 out of 12 in the comparison group. Eight of the 12 in the EGF group remained in remission after 12 weeks.
Two patients in the comparison group left the study by the second week because their symptoms got worse. [NEJM, July 24, 2003]
Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are chronic-relapsing diseases, the clinical courses of which are characterized by periods of remission and periods of acute flare up, determining clinical symptoms which have a strong impact on the quality of life for patients. For many years, corticosteroids have represented the cornerstone of therapy for induction of remission in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD); however, the side-effects emerging with long-term use exceeded the clinical benefits. Recently, Infliximab (IFX) has become an alternative choice in the treatment strategies for CD and UC. Some safety issues are associated with IFX use, mostly related to the development of adverse events (e.g. opportunistic infections, autoimmune disorders and infusion reactions). Major concerns are related to the reactivation of latent tuberculosis and development of malignancy, even if there is no clear evidence the use of IFX increases the incidence of solid cancers. The research published in issue 39 of World Journal of Gastroenterology and led by Renato Caviglia at University Campus Biomedico in Italy aimed to retrospectively evaluate the safety and efficacy of long-term therapy with IFX, reviewing the medical charts of 41 IBD patients who received, after a loading dose of 3 IFX infusions, scheduled retreatment every 8 weeks as maintenance protocol.
Centocor, Inc., Schering-Plough Corporation, and Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation have announced (2007) that an estimated one million patients have now been treated with REMICADE (infliximab), the leading anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha therapy worldwide. In fact, REMICADE has been used to treat more patients worldwide than all other anti-TNF-alpha agents combined. REMICADE was the first anti-TNF-alpha treatment approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), when it was indicated for the treatment of acute moderate to severe Crohn’s disease in 1998. The indication for Crohn’s disease was quickly followed by additional indications, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
REMICADE has been studied in more than 37 clinical trials, evaluating its use in a wide variety of diseases of the immune system and is approved for use in 88 countries.
A study of patients with ulcerative colitis found that the use of germinated barley for a month produced improvement in symptoms and colon tissue health. The dose was between 20 and 30gm per day, and these patients had been unresponsive to standard medical therapy. [J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2002;17(8): pp.818-824]
Others have reported the usefulness of germinated barley foodstuff (GBF – a nutraceutical made from brewer’s spent grain which contains a glutamine-rich protein and hemicellulose-rich fiber) in treating ulcerative colitis.
Although clinical studies have not been conducted using sterols and sterolins, based on existing research for other conditions, it is foreseeable that taking sterols and sterolins in cases of IBD will result in controlling the immune onslaught taking place on the mucosal surface. Sterols and sterolins will decrease the release of the inflammatory factors, get the good T cells to secrete the good factors, and induce a state of balance in the immune response. By so doing, it will allow repair mechanisms to kick in and recovery from such chronic conditions to take place.
Smokers have lower than average rates of ulcerative colitis, but higher than average rates of Crohn’s disease. Some patients with ulcerative colitis, in fact, have reported that their disorder began after they quit smoking, and many studies have reinforced the association between smoking and protection against ulcerative colitis. Studies are showing that the nicotine patch helps to induce remission and reduce symptoms in almost 40% of patients who use it for four weeks. Another study found, however, that patches are not useful for maintaining remission. Side-effects, particularly in nonsmokers, include nausea, lightheadedness, and headache. Investigators are studying methods of applying nicotine directly into the colon. (No one should smoke for relief of ulcerative colitis symptoms; the risks from cigarettes far outweigh the potential benefits of their nicotine.)
Ulcerative colitis is both an autoimmune disorder and sensitive to stress. Using hydrocortisol to reduce inflammation followed by physiologic replacement doses when indicated is a reasonable supportive therapeutic strategy.
It has been suggested that as many as 80% of those with UC have low stomach acid (hypochlorhydria).
As many as 50% of sufferers will improve by avoiding food allergens such as dairy, wheat, corn and eggs.
DHEA can be a factor in autoimmune problems, which some consider ulcerative colitis to be.
Stool analysis or a pancreatic trial will reveal if pancreatic enzymes are necessary.
Some doctors have reported reduced pain with the use of MSM.
Zinc supports tissue regeneration and can be especially useful if levels are deficient.
Breaking the Vicious Cycle by Elaine Gottschall is a practical book that addresses the problems of intestinal conditions, including indigestion, a “nervous stomach”, chronic diarrhea or spastic colon, to the more serious and debilitating problems such as Ulcerative Colitis, Crohn’s disease, Diverticulitis, Celiac Disease and Cystic Fibrosis. Breaking the Vicious Cycle provides an alternative way to help combat digestive disorders using dietary changes.
Butyrate by enema has substantially reduced the number of bowel movements and amount of bleeding in patients who have not responded to other therapies. This is especially true when the distal colon is involved – an area where the enema can easily reach.
Rectal insufflation of ozone can hasten tissue repair and kill bacteria that may be slowing the healing process.
Unresolved grief is sometimes a hidden contributing factor. Resolving the issue as completely as possible may hasten healing and reduce relapses.
Please see the link between UC and Folic Acid Requirement.
See the link between Autoimmune Tendency and Vitamin D.
Vitamin C (unless it causes colon irritation) may be supportive.
|Weak or unproven link|
|Strong or generally accepted link|
|Proven definite or direct link|
|Very strongly or absolutely counter-indicative|
|May do some good|
|Likely to help|
|Reasonably likely to cause problems|
The part of the large intestine that extends to the rectum. The colon takes the contents of the small intestine, moving them to the rectum by contracting.
(Colitis ulcerosa): Ulceration of the colon and rectum, usually long-term and characterized by rectal bleeding or blood in the stool, frequent urgent diarrhea/bowel movements each day, abdominal pain.
Mucous tissue layer lining tubular structures (nasal passages, ear canal, etc.).
Inflammation of the colon.
Inflammation of a joint, usually accompanied by pain, swelling, and stiffness, and resulting from infection, trauma, degenerative changes, metabolic disturbances, or other causes. It occurs in various forms, such as bacterial arthritis, osteoarthritis, or rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoarthritis, the most common form, is characterized by a gradual loss of cartilage and often an overgrowth of bone at the joints.
Accumulation of triglycerides in the liver.
Inflammation of the liver usually resulting in jaundice (yellowing of the skin), loss of appetite, stomach discomfort, abnormal liver function, clay-colored stools, and dark urine. May be caused by a bacterial or viral infection, parasitic infestation, alcohol, drugs, toxins or transfusion of incompatible blood. Can be life-threatening. Severe hepatitis may lead to cirrhosis and chronic liver dysfunction.
A long-term disease in which the liver becomes covered with fiber-like tissue. This causes the liver tissue to break down and become filled with fat. All functions of the liver then decrease, including the production of glucose, processing drugs and alcohol, and vitamin absorption. Stomach and bowel function, and the making of hormones are also affected.
Bile duct inflammation.
A disease in which bone tissue becomes porous and brittle. The disease primarily affects postmenopausal women.
A condition resulting from an unusually low number of red blood cells or too little hemoglobin in the red blood cells. The most common type is iron-deficiency anemia in which the red blood cells are reduced in size and number, and hemoglobin levels are low. Clinical symptoms include shortness of breath, lethargy and heart palpitations.
A stone (concretion) in the kidney. If the stone is large enough to block the tube (ureter) and stop the flow of urine from the kidney, it must be removed by surgery or other methods. Also called Renal Calculus. Symptoms usually begin with intense waves of pain as a stone moves in the urinary tract. Typically, a person feels a sharp, cramping pain in the back and side in the area of the kidney or in the lower abdomen. Sometimes nausea and vomiting occur. Later, pain may spread to the groin. The pain may continue if the stone is too large to pass; blood may appear in the urine and there may be the need to urinate more often or a burning sensation during urination. If fever and chills accompany any of these symptoms, an infection may be present and a doctor should be seen immediately.
A complex that protects the body from disease organisms and other foreign bodies. The system includes the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated response. The immune system also protects the body from invasion by making local barriers and inflammation.
Inflammation of the mucous membranes of the rectum.
Infection of the skin or mucous membrane with any species of candida, usually Candida albicans. The infection is usually localized to the skin, nails, mouth, vagina, bronchi, or lungs, but may invade the bloodstream. It is a common inhabitant of the GI tract, only becoming a problem when it multiplies excessively and invades local tissues. Growth is encouraged by a weakened immune system, as in AIDS, or with the prolonged administration of antibiotics. Vaginal symptoms include itching in the genital area, pain when urinating, and a thick odorless vaginal discharge.
Tending to destroy microbes, hinder their multiplication or growth.
Pertaining to the stomach, small and large intestines, colon, rectum, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder.
Difficult, incomplete, or infrequent evacuation of dry, hardened feces from the bowels.
White Blood Cell
(WBC): A blood cell that does not contain hemoglobin: a blood corpuscle responsible for maintaining the body's immune surveillance system against invasion by foreign substances such as viruses or bacteria. White cells become specifically programmed against foreign invaders and work to inactivate and rid the body of a foreign substance. Also known as a leukocyte.
An illness or symptom of sudden onset, which generally has a short duration.
Chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract. The most common symptoms are abdominal pain, often in the lower right area, and diarrhea. Rectal bleeding, weight loss, and fever may also occur. Bleeding may be serious and persistent, leading to anemia.
Inflammation of one or more vertebrae.
Excessive discharge of contents of bowel.
An essential mineral that is a component of several important enzymes in the body and is essential to good health. Copper is found in all body tissues. Copper deficiency leads to a variety of abnormalities, including anemia, skeletal defects, degeneration of the nervous system, reproductive failure, pronounced cardiovascular lesions, elevated blood cholesterol, impaired immunity and defects in the pigmentation and structure of hair. Copper is involved in iron incorporation into hemoglobin. It is also involved with vitamin C in the formation of collagen and the proper functioning in central nervous system. More than a dozen enzymes have been found to contain copper. The best studied are superoxide dismutase (SOD), cytochrome C oxidase, catalase, dopamine hydroxylase, uricase, tryptophan dioxygenase, lecithinase and other monoamine and diamine oxidases.
Usually Chronic illness: Illness extending over a long period of time.
Vitamin B-12. Essential for normal growth and functioning of all body cells, especially those of bone marrow (red blood cell formation), gastrointestinal tract and nervous system, it prevents pernicious anemia and plays a crucial part in the reproduction of every cell of the body i.e. synthesis of genetic material (DNA).
The cell-free fluid of the bloodstream. It appears in a test tube after the blood clots and is often used in expressions relating to the levels of certain compounds in the blood stream.
Any of a large number of hormonal substances with a similar basic chemical structure containing a 17-carbon 14-ring system and including the sterols and various hormones and glycosides.
A B-complex vitamin that functions along with vitamin B-12 and vitamin C in the utilization of proteins. It has an essential role in the formation of heme (the iron containing protein in hemoglobin necessary for the formation of red blood cells) and DNA. Folic acid is essential during pregnancy to prevent neural tubular defects in the developing fetus.
An element or compound that, when melted or dissolved in water or other solvent, breaks up into ions and is able to carry an electric current.
Refers to the various types of malignant neoplasms that contain cells growing out of control and invading adjacent tissues, which may metastasize to distant tissues.