|Addictions|| Alcoholism Recovery
| ||Alcoholics tend to have low magnesium levels, and this mineral can be helpful during withdrawal.|
| ||Magnesium has been substituted for cocaine and can result in reduced cocaine intake.|
Multiple Sclerosis / Risk
| ||Please also see the article about the approach that Fred Klenner, MD used with MS.|
Not recommended for:
| ||While magnesium is an important mineral and magnesium deficiency is somewhat common, a large dose of a magnesium may act as a muscle relaxant and cause extreme weakness in MG.|
Mitral Valve Prolapse
| ||Research has shown that 85% of patients with mitral valve prolapse have latent tetany due to chronic magnesium deficiency. A magnesium deficiency:|
Oral magnesium supplementation can provide relief of mitral valve prolapse symptoms.
- hinders the mechanism by which fibroblasts degrade defective collagen (connective tissue abnormalities are common in mitral valve prolapse),
- increases circulating catecholamines (an important mediator in platelet aggregation),
- predisposes the patient to cardiac arrhythmias, thromboembolic phenomena, and dysregulation of the immune and autonomic nervous systems.
| ||Magnesium is helpful in preventing blood vessel calcification (and thereby atherosclerosis). A daily dose of 50mg of vitamin B6 and 200-300mg of magnesium is often given. Generally though, magnesium doses should be higher than this.|
| ||A magnesium deficiency can produce electrical changes in the heart muscle and thus lead to arrhythmia. Magnesium is commonly given to patients with arrhythmias but is thought to drive potassium into cells, producing lower serum potassium if not enough potassium is available to maintain normal serum levels. When in doubt, it is best to supplement both potassium and magnesium together.|
In 22 postmenopausal women it was found that a low magnesium diet caused a significant increase in both supraventricular and supraventricular plus ventricular beats compared to a diet higher in magnesium. [Am J Clin Nutr, 2002;75: pp.550-554]
| ||Magnesium insufficiency-induced coronary artery spasm, more common in men than women, is now recognized as an important cause of myocardial infarction and may be of significance in angina pectoris.|
Oral magnesium supplementation (700 - 800mg per day) can improve exercise tolerance and reduce exercise-induced chest pain in patients with coronary artery disease. [Am J Cardiol 2003;91: pp.517-521]
Platelet Aggregation Risk
| ||Magnesium is a powerful antagonist of platelet adhesion. It acts as an anticoagulant, prolongs clotting time, stimulates fibrinolysis and is synergistic with heparin.|
| ||In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, it was demonstrated that oral magnesium resulted in a significant dose-dependent reduction of systolic and diastolic blood pressure. A mean reduction of 6mm Hg in diastolic pressure in patients with hypertension results in approximately 10% lower risk of coronary artery disease, and a 40% reduction in risk of strokes.|
When magnesium levels are low, more calcium flows into the vascular muscle cells, which contracts them - leading to tighter vessels and higher blood pressure. Adequate magnesium levels prevent this.
| ||When given orally in sufficient quantities, magnesium citrate or sulfate (Epsom salts) is not fully absorbed but attracts water into the colon and thus acts as an effective laxative. Most people have heard of milk of magnesia, a form of magnesium sold as a laxative in drugstores. It is completely natural, safe, and it works very well, aside from a slightly unpleasant taste. Other forms of magnesium, including magnesium chloride, have a higher absorption rate. They may not be quite as effective as laxatives but they don't taste as bad, they are gentler and can help while at the same time also providing magnesium for the body.|
Not recommended for:
| ||Too much magnesium, more than can be absorbed by the time it reaches the large intestine, can increase bowel activitiy and cause more bowel movements.|
Environment / Toxicity
Heavy Metal Toxicity
| ||Magnesium is thought to reduce lead toxicity and its buildup, possibly through competing for absorption.|
Not recommended for:
Histadelia (Histamine High)
Low Adrenal Function / Adrenal Insufficiency
Chronic Fatigue / Fibromyalgia Syndrome
| ||Fatigue is sometimes reduced with magnesium (and potassium) supplementation. The many enzyme systems that require magnesium help restore normal energy levels. Treat any magnesium deficiency preferably with magnesium malate. Sometimes magnesium by injection or IV is used.|
Elevated Total Cholesterol
| ||Because of its nerve and muscle support, magnesium may also be helpful for depression.|
| ||Because of its nerve and muscle support, magnesium may also be helpful for nervousness and anxiety.|
Magnesium is considered the "antistress" mineral. It is a natural tranquilizer as it functions to relax skeletal muscles as well as the smooth muscles of blood vessels and the gastrointestinal tract. Whereas calcium stimulates muscle contraction, magnesium relaxes them.
Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD / ADHD)
| ||Magnesium is often given as part of a treatment for hyperactivity in kids, usually along with vitamin B6.|
| ||Several researchers have provided substantial links between low magnesium levels and both migraine and tension headaches, based on both theory and clinical observations. A magnesium deficiency is known to set the stage for the events that can cause a migraine attack or a tension headache. Low brain and tissue magnesium concentrations have been found in patients prone to migraines, indicating a need for supplementation. One of magnesium's key functions is to maintain the tone of the blood vessels.|
Magnesium malate or other Krebs cycle chelates (citrate, fumarate, succinate, and alpha ketoglutarate) may be best. 600-1000mg of elemental magnesium per day in divided doses with meals may be required over a one to two month period.
Serum and urinary magnesium levels are only sometimes statistically lower in migraine sufferers than in controls. However, migraine sufferers retain more magnesium than controls when magnesium is given orally, indicating a more systemic deficiency [Headache 2002;42: pp.114-19]. Earlier studies have found reduced levels of magnesium in serum, saliva, red blood cells, mononuclear cells, lymphocytes, and cerebrospinal fluid in migraine patients.
Bruxism (Clenching/Grinding Teeth)
| ||Until further research is done, the best strategy may involve taking the following on a daily basis: magnesium, calcium and pantothenic acid. If bruxism subsides, it is advisable to continue taking these supplements, but perhaps at a lower dosage. If no improvement is observed after 2 months, another approach should be tried.|
| ||People who suffer from cluster headaches often have low blood levels of magnesium, and preliminary trials show that intravenous magnesium injections may relieve a cluster headache episode. Magnesium is a relaxant of smooth muscles. [Headache 1995;35: pp.597-600, 1996;36: pp.154-60]|
Metabolic Syndrome (Syndrome X)
| ||A diet rich in magnesium may help reduce the incidence of metabolic syndrome, the cluster of conditions that can lead to diabetes and coronary heart disease, new research finds.|
The study of more than 4,600 Americans, begun in 1985, found the risk of developing metabolic syndrome over the next 15 years was 31 percent lower for those with the highest intake of magnesium, according to a report in the March 28 issue of Circulation.
The components of metabolic syndrome include high blood pressure, high blood sugar levels, elevated blood fats and low levels of HDL cholesterol: the "good" kind that helps keep arteries clear. Having at least three of these factors increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes.
This is not the first study to link magnesium and metabolic syndrome. An analysis of data on 11,686 participants in the Women's Health Study, published last year by Dr. Paul M. Ridker and others at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, yielded similar results, with a 27 percent lower incidence of the symdrome for women with the highest magnesium intake compared to those with the lowest.
This study does add something new, says study author Dr. Ka He, an assistant professor of medicine at Northwestern University. It showed that "a higher magnesium intake was associated with a reduced risk of each individual component of the metabolic syndrome," he says. [Circulation March 28 2006]
| ||300 young healthy male military recruits undergoing two months of basic training were studied. The trainees were repeatedly exposed to high levels of impulse noises, with ringing of the ears as a consequence. Each recruit received daily either 167mg of magnesium aspartate or a placebo. Permanent hearing loss was significantly more frequent and more severe in the placebo group than in the magnesium group. [Am J Otolaryngol 1994;15: pp.26-32]|
Metabolic Diet Type
| ||Because of its nerve and muscle support, magnesium may also be helpful for insomnia.|
| ||Taking this mineral with some thiamine (B1) and drinking extra water can help prevent hangover symptoms.|
Blood Type B
Hyperkalemia (Elevated Serum Potassium)
| ||Magnesium (200mg two to three times per day) helps regulate potassium levels.|
Not recommended for:
Osteoporosis / Risk
| ||A high percentage of the American population is considered to have some degree of magnesium deficiency [JAMA 1990, 263: 3063]. In a study, magnesium supplements were given to 19 postmenopausal women on estrogen replacement therapy with low bone density. After 1 year of magnesium supplementation 12 of the women no longer had low bone density [J Reprod Med 1990, 35: p.503]. Magnesium supplementation has been associated with a 1 - 8% increase in bone density [Magnesium Research 1993, 6: p.155].|
Susceptibility To Cavities
| ||Magnesium is helpful in preventing some problems of the teeth, including cavities. For these purposes, a daily dose of 50mg of vitamin B6 and 200-300mg of magnesium is often given.|
Muscle Cramps / Twitching
| ||See the link between Muscle Cramps and Magnesium Requirement.|
Restless Leg Syndrome (RLS) / Periodic Limb Moveme
| ||Magnesium deficiency, which is known to increase neuromuscular excitability, can also cause this syndrome. [Rom J Neural Psychiatry 31(1): pp.55-6, 1993]|
Leg Cramps At Night
| ||Because of its nerve and muscle support, magnesium may also be helpful for muscle cramps. Some people taking magnesium may get relief from leg cramps right away, but a long-standing deficiency can take weeks to overcome with supplements.|
Nature's Way - Magnesium Citrate Complex 500 mg 100 caps
| ||Through its nerve- and muscle-relaxing effect, magnesium may be helpful in reducing epileptic seizures caused by nerve excitability.|
Kidney Stones (Urolithiasis)
| ||By increasing calcium solubility (especially in the urine) and reducing calcium absorption, magnesium can help prevent kidney stones, especially those composed of calcium oxalate. Research has shown this effect in a high percentage of people who form kidney stones regularly. It is thought that calcium oxalate stones are most likely to form in people who are magnesium deficient, so it may just be correcting that deficiency.|
Not recommended for:
Kidney Weakness / Disease
| ||If you have kidney problems, taking magnesium supplements may make you accumulate the mineral too quickly, which could be toxic.|
| ||If you have kidney problems, taking magnesium supplements may cause you to accumulate the mineral too quickly, which could be toxic. As kidneys fail, they lose their ability to remove excess magnesium. If you have kidney problems, you should check with your doctor before taking magnesium supplements.|
Low Back Pain / Problems
| ||Some doctors consider the use of magnesium (muscle relaxant) in back pain that may be due to muscle spasm and toxicity.|
| ||Magnesium supplements may reduce the bronchoconstriction in asthma by relaxing the muscle around the bronchial tubes. Intravenous solutions containing magnesium and other nutrients have been used successfully to break acute asthma attacks. Oral use improves breathing in asthmatics and the improvement correlates with serum magnesium levels.|
In a preliminary trial, 18 adults with asthma took 300mg of magnesium per day for 30 days and experienced decreased bronchial reactivity. [Magnesium-Bulletin 1997;19: pp.4-6] However, a double-blind trial investigated the effects of 400mg per day for three weeks and found a significant improvement in symptoms, but not in objective measures of airflow or airway reactivity. [Eur Respir J 1997;10: pp.2225-9] The amount of magnesium used in these trials was 300 to 400mg per day (children take proportionately less based on their body weight).
Increased Risk of Coronary Disease / Heart Attack
Increased Risk of Hypertension
| ||Magnesium has a mild effect on lowering blood pressure and so is used to treat and prevent hypertension and its effects.|
| ||See the link between Body Odor and Zinc.|
Eclampsia / Preeclampsia
| ||Magnesium has been used specifically to lower blood pressure in pregnant women with preeclampsia, which is characterized by edema, hypertension, and hyperreflexia. These problems could become more severe and lead to seizures (then termed "eclampsia") as well. Magnesium also acts as a mild anticonvulsant in this case.|
Premenstrual Syndrome / PMDD
| ||Menstrual cramps, irritability, fatigue, depression and water retention have been lessened by taking supplemental magnesium, usually given along with calcium and often with vitamin B6. Magnesium is often at its lowest level during menstruation, and many symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) are relieved when this mineral is replenished. Supplementing magnesium in the same amount (or more) as calcium (about 500-1,000mg daily) is currently recommended for premenstrual problems. Women with PMS have been reported to be at increased risk of magnesium deficiency.|
A 1998 study in The Journal of Women's Health found that 200mg a day of magnesium reduced PMS fluid retention, breast tenderness and bloating by 40%. Magnesium is important to regulate muscle relaxation, blood sugar, and to promote sound sleep - all particularly important during PMS.
Premenstrual Syndrome PMS H (Heaviness)
| ||A deficiency in magnesium causes hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex, elevated aldosterone levels, and increased extracellular fluid volume. Aldosterone increases the urinary excretion of magnesium; hence, a positive feedback mechanism results, which is aggravated since there is no renal mechanism for conserving magnesium.|
In laboratory animals, a pyridoxine deficiency at the renal level decreases the kidneys� ability to secrete sodium. In addition, since pyridoxine requires magnesium for phosphorylation to its active form, a magnesium deficiency can lead to decreased B6 activity. Increased insulin secretion, in response to sugar consumption, results in sodium retention that is independent of aldosterone.
Premenstrual Syndrome PMS C (Craving)
| ||In initial research, the supplementation of magnesium has resulted in the satisfying of chocolate cravings. Since both chocolate and cocoa powder contain high levels of magnesium (520mg/100gm and 100mg/100gm, respectively), your craving of chocolate may just reflect your desire to supplement this essential element. Additionally, there are links between low magnesium levels and the development of PMS symptoms, which may explain some women�s monthly chocolate binge.|
Dysmenorrhea, Painful Menstruation
| ||Menstrual cramps, irritability, fatigue, depression, and water retention have been lessened with magnesium, usually given along with calcium and often with vitamin B6. Magnesium is often at its lowest level during menstruation. In acute cases, magnesium and vitamin B6 intravenously can stop the cramping. Restoring magnesium sufficiency by consistent supplementation can work to prevent this problem.|
Possible Pregnancy-Related Issues
| ||Low magnesium levels are common among women suffering from severe nausea and vomiting, says Miriam Erick, M.S., R.D., dietetic manager of Clinical Obstetrics at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston. Therefore, magnesium for these expectant moms is critical. Magnesium can also help treat pregnancy-related leg cramps [Dahle LO, et al. Am J of Obst & Gyn 1995;173: pp.175�180] and alleviate severe pre-eclampsia, a serious condition in which high blood pressure, edema and protein in the urine are present in pregnant women. [Brit J Obst & Gyn 1997;104(10): pp.1173�9] Taking prenatal magnesium may also reduce risk for cerebral palsy and mental retardation among very low birth-weight infants. [Schendel DE, et al. J of the AMA 1996;276(22): pp.1805�10]|
In a study of 535 women who were expected to deliver within the one day, subjects received a loading dose of 4g of magnesium sulfate at a 0.5 g/ml concentration in a 60-ml bag compared with 527 women who received an isotonic sodium solution, both over 20 minutes, followed by a maintenance infusion at 2 ml/hour for up to 24 hours. At 2 years, the children of women who received magnesium sulfate had a reduction in total mortality (13.8% vs 17.1%), less cerebral palsy (6.8% vs 8.2%), and less combined death or cerebral palsy (19.8% vs 24.0%) compared with those who received the placebo. There was significantly less gross motor dysfunction and combined death or substantial gross motor dysfunction in the magnesium group versus the isotonic sodium chloride group. There were no serious harmful effects seen with the magnesium sulfate infusion. [JAMA. November 26, 2003;290(20): pp.2669-2676]
Premenstrual Syndrome PMS D (Depression)
| ||Lead blocks the binding of estrogen to receptor sites and but has no effect on progesterone. A chronic magnesium deficiency may be a contributing factor as it results in increased lead absorption and retention, while decreasing resistance to stress. Hair mineral analysis has shown that, in general, PMS patients have higher heavy metal levels and lower magnesium levels than non-PMS controls. Menstrual cramps, irritability, fatigue, depression and water retention have been lessened with magnesium, usually given along with calcium and often with vitamin B6. Magnesium is often at its lowest level during menstruation. Supplementing magnesium in the same amount (or more) as calcium (about 500-1,000mg daily) is currently recommended for premenstrual problems.|
Susceptibility To Miscarriages
| ||A small study of infertile women and women with a history of miscarriage suggests that low levels of magnesium may impair reproductive function, and may contribute to miscarriage. Oxidation, a process that is damaging to cell membranes, can lead to loss of magnesium. The same study suggests that the antioxidant selenium protects the cell membrane, thereby maintaining appropriate levels of magnesium. The authors of the study suggest taking both magnesium and selenium supplements.|
Women who have miscarried have lower levels of selenium than women who carry a pregnancy to full term. Although the authors of the above-mentioned study do not specify the exact amount to take, the recommended doses are generally 300 to 400mg per day of magnesium and 200mcg per day of selenium.