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Many drugs interact with coumadin and may cause more anticoagulation effect (clofibrate, diazoxide, ethacrynic acid, nalidixic acid, phenylbutazone, salicylates, aspirin, sulfonamides, alcohol, allopurinol, amiodarone, cimetidind, phenytoin, erythromycin, gemfibrozil, propranolol, thyroid drugs) or decreased anticoagulation effect (smoking, estrogens, vitamin K, aluminum hydroxide - antacids, cholestipol, spironolactone). The effects of coumadin must be carefully monitored by a blood test called an INR. Usually this is checked more often at the onset of taking the drug and less often once a steady state has been reached. Therapeutic INR is usually 2 to 3 depending on the condition being treated.
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Antacid: Neutralizes acid in the stomach, esophagus, or first part of the duodenum.
Anticoagulant: A substance that prevents or delays blood clots (coagulation).
Arrhythmia: A condition caused by variation in the regular rhythm of the heartbeat. Arrhythmias may cause serious conditions such as shock and congestive heart failure, or even death.
Cardiac: Pertaining to the heart, also, pertaining to the stomach area adjacent to the esophagus.
Diabetes Mellitus: A disease with increased blood glucose levels due to lack or ineffectiveness of insulin. Diabetes is found in two forms; insulin-dependent diabetes (juvenile-onset) and non-insulin-dependent (adult-onset). Symptoms include increased thirst; increased urination; weight loss in spite of increased appetite; fatigue; nausea; vomiting; frequent infections including bladder, vaginal, and skin; blurred vision; impotence in men; bad breath; cessation of menses; diminished skin fullness. Other symptoms include bleeding gums; ear noise/buzzing; diarrhea; depression; confusion.
Embolism: Obstruction of a vessel by an abnormal body, usually a detached blood clot.
Ischemia: Localized tissue anemia due to obstruction of the inflow of arterial blood.
Metabolism: The chemical processes of living cells in which energy is produced in order to replace and repair tissues and maintain a healthy body. Responsible for the production of energy, biosynthesis of important substances, and degradation of various compounds.
Potassium: A mineral that serves as an electrolyte and is involved in the balance of fluid within the body. Our bodies contain more than twice as much potassium as sodium (typically 9oz versus 4oz). About 98% of total body potassium is inside our cells. Potassium is the principal cation (positive ion) of the fluid within cells and is important in controlling the activity of the heart, muscles, nervous system and just about every cell in the body. Potassium regulates the water balance and acid-base balance in the blood and tissues. Evidence is showing that potassium is also involved in bone calcification. Potassium is a cofactor in many reactions, especially those involving energy production and muscle building.
Stroke: A sudden loss of brain function caused by a blockage or rupture of a blood vessel that supplies the brain, characterized by loss of muscular control, complete or partial loss of sensation or consciousness, dizziness, slurred speech, or other symptoms that vary with the extent and severity of the damage to the brain. The most common manifestation is some degree of paralysis, but small strokes may occur without symptoms. Usually caused by arteriosclerosis, it often results in brain damage.
Thyroid: Thyroid Gland: An organ with many veins. It is at the front of the neck. It is essential to normal body growth in infancy and childhood. It releases thyroid hormones - iodine-containing compounds that increase the rate of metabolism, affect body temperature, regulate protein, fat, and carbohydrate catabolism in all cells. They keep up growth hormone release, skeletal maturation, and heart rate, force, and output. They promote central nervous system growth, stimulate the making of many enzymes, and are necessary for muscle tone and vigor.
Vitamin E: An essential fat-soluble vitamin. As an antioxidant, helps protect cell membranes, lipoproteins, fats and vitamin A from destructive oxidation. It helps protect red blood cells and is important for the proper function of nerves and muscles. For Vitamin E only, 1mg translates to 1 IU.
Vitamin K: Helps the blood clot when the body is injured.