The Analyst™

Comprehensive diagnosis of your symptoms

Healthy

  Excess Water Consumption  
 
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Signs, symptoms and indicators | Conditions that suggest it | Contributing risk factors | It can lead to... | Recommendations

 

More than 4 quarts of water per day is only going to be necessary in situations of extreme sweating. If you are not sweating heavily, this much water may just place an unnecessary burden on your kidneys. Excessive fluid intake usually becomes dangerous when large volumes are drunken in a short period of time - beyond the bodies ability to clear the excess.

  • This can dilute the electrolytes in your blood and cause low blood-sodium levels (hyponatremia).
  • Excessive urination can flush out essential electrolytes, minerals and other compounds.
Symptoms of fluid overload include a gradual mental dulling, drowsiness, weakness, confusion, coma, convulsions and death.

Hyponatremic encephalopathy can result when too much water is ingested too quickly and the brain swells due to a sodium imbalance. This is most common amongst athletes, military personnel and the elderly. There were 125 Army hospitalizations for hypontraemia between 1989 and 1996. These cases were associated with excessive water drinking and were often mistaken for dehydration and patients were unfortunately given additional water.

Due to heat exhaustion, Marine Corps recruits drank ten to twenty-two quarts of water in a short time period in July1995 which resulted in nine cases in one day. Five of them developed seizure activity and progressed to delirium and/or coma, but were eventually returned to full duty.

In July 1997 there was one fatal case where a healthy eighteen-year-old drank three quarts of water prior to arriving at a rifle range. He drank five more quarts before 11am and began to feel dizzy. He therefore rested and drank two more quarts and waited to see an improvement. When his symptoms did not improve he drank ten more quarts over the next two hours. He became increasingly confused and lethargic and lost consciousness. He later died.

Older people are often advised to drink much more water than they can handle because the thirst sensation is less accurate as the aging process progresses. However, high fluid intake can cause them to lose sleep, as they will need to use the bathroom during the night and can also worsen congestive heart failure. Many older patients may already be at risk of hyponatremia because their kidneys reabsorb too much water.
 

 
 

Signs, symptoms & indicators of Excess Water Consumption:
 
 
Symptoms - General  Constant fatigue

Symptoms - Mind - General

  A 'foggy' mind
 Symptoms of fluid overload include a gradual mental dulling, drowsiness, weakness, confusion, coma, convulsions (and even death!)

  Periods of confusion/disorientation
 
 

Conditions that suggest Excess Water Consumption:
 
 
Metabolic  Edema (Water Retention)

Musculo-Skeletal

  General Weakness

Nervous System

  Seizure Disorder
 
 

Risk factors for Excess Water Consumption:
 
 
Lab Values - Chemistries  Low BUN

Symptoms - Food - Beverages

  High/excessive water consumption
  Sufficient water consumption

Counter-indicators:
  Reasonable/insufficient water consumption
 
 

Excess Water Consumption can lead to:
 
 
Digestion  Dyspepsia / Poor Digestion
 Excess water drinking can lower stomach acidity and impair digestion.
 
 

Recommendations for Excess Water Consumption:
 
 
Diet  Reduced Water Consumption
 
 


KEY
Weak or unproven link
Strong or generally accepted link
Very strongly or absolutely counter-indicative
Highly recommended







GLOSSARY

Congestive:  Pertaining to accumulation of blood or fluid within a vessel or organ.

Electrolyte:  An element or compound that, when melted or dissolved in water or other solvent, breaks up into ions and is able to carry an electric current.

Mineral:  Plays a vital role in regulating many body functions. They act as catalysts in nerve response, muscle contraction and the metabolism of nutrients in foods. They regulate electrolyte balance and hormonal production, and they strengthen skeletal structures.

Seizure:  While there are over 40 types of seizure, most are classed as either partial seizures which occur when the excessive electrical activity in the brain is limited to one area or generalized seizures which occur when the excessive electrical activity in the brain encompasses the entire organ. Although there is a wide range of signs, they mainly include such things as falling to the ground; muscle stiffening; jerking and twitching; loss of consciousness; an empty stare; rapid chewing/blinking/breathing. Usually lasting from between a couple of seconds and several minutes, recovery may be immediate or take up to several days.

Sodium:  An essential mineral that our bodies regulate and conserve. Excess sodium retention increases the fluid volume (edema) and low sodium leads to less fluid and relative dehydration. The adult body averages a total content of over 100 grams of sodium, of which a surprising one-third is in bone. A small amount of sodium does get into cell interiors, but this represents only about ten percent of the body content. The remaining 57 percent or so of the body sodium content is in the fluid immediately surrounding the cells, where it is the major cation (positive ion). The role of sodium in the extracellular fluid is maintaining osmotic equilibrium (the proper difference in ions dissolved in the fluids inside and outside the cell) and extracellular fluid volume. Sodium is also involved in nerve impulse transmission, muscle tone and nutrient transport. All of these functions are interrelated with potassium.

Stomach:  A hollow, muscular, J-shaped pouch located in the upper part of the abdomen to the left of the midline. The upper end (fundus) is large and dome-shaped; the area just below the fundus is called the body of the stomach. The fundus and the body are often referred to as the cardiac portion of the stomach. The lower (pyloric) portion curves downward and to the right and includes the antrum and the pylorus. The function of the stomach is to begin digestion by physically breaking down food received from the esophagus. The tissues of the stomach wall are composed of three types of muscle fibers: circular, longitudinal and oblique. These fibers create structural elasticity and contractibility, both of which are needed for digestion. The stomach mucosa contains cells which secrete hydrochloric acid and this in turn activates the other gastric enzymes pepsin and rennin. To protect itself from being destroyed by its own enzymes, the stomach’s mucous lining must constantly regenerate itself.