Anabolic: Anabolic compounds: Allow the conversion of nutritive material into complex living matter in the constructive metabolism.
Anovulatory: Not involving or accompanied by ovulation; suppressing ovulation.
Carcinoma: Malignant growth of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissue and giving rise to metastasis.
Cervix: The lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina.
Corpus Luteum: Yellow endocrine body formed in the ovary that secretes estrogen.
DUB: Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding (DUB) is any abnormality of menstruation or bleeding caused by a hormonal disorder. DUB is a diagnosis of exclusion. The following conditions should be ruled out in order to diagnose DUB: endometrial polyps, uterine fibroids, adenomyosis, endometrial or cervical cancer, pelvic infection including endometritis (infection of the lining of the uterus), endometriosis, polycystic ovarian disease, ovarian cyst or tumor, thyroid dysfunction or blood clotting abnormalities. Hormone testing may indicate abnormalities which replacement therapy would then resolve. If the dysfunctional bleeding disappears, then no further testing may be necessary.
Failure to perform sufficient testing may result in an incorrect diagnosis of DUB because the true cause of the abnormal bleeding has been overlooked. A premature diagnosis of DUB may lead to improper and failed treatment. DUB accounts for approximately 20% of all hysterectomies in the U.S.
Estrogen: One of the female sex hormones produced by the ovaries.
Hormones: Chemical substances secreted by a variety of body organs that are carried by the bloodstream and usually influence cells some distance from the source of production. Hormones signal certain enzymes to perform their functions and, in this way, regulate such body functions as blood sugar levels, insulin levels, the menstrual cycle, and growth. These can be prescription, over-the-counter, synthetic or natural agents. Examples include adrenal hormones such as corticosteroids and aldosterone; glucagon, growth hormone, insulin, testosterone, estrogens, progestins, progesterone, DHEA, melatonin, and thyroid hormones such as thyroxine and calcitonin.
Hyperthyroidism: An abnormal condition of the thyroid gland resulting in excessive secretion of thyroid hormones characterized by an increased metabolism and weight loss.
Hypothyroidism: Diminished production of thyroid hormone, leading to low metabolic rate, tendency to gain weight, and sleepiness.
Menopause: The cessation of menstruation (usually not official until 12 months have passed without periods), occurring at the average age of 52. As commonly used, the word denotes the time of a woman's life, usually between the ages of 45 and 54, when periods cease and any symptoms of low estrogen levels persist, including hot flashes, insomnia, anxiety, mood swings, loss of libido and vaginal dryness. When these early menopausal symptoms subside, a woman becomes postmenopausal.
Metrorrhagia: Any irregular, acyclic bleeding from the uterus between periods.
Ovarian Cysts: These occur in two forms, namely "functional" and "organic". may not be present but can include pressure or pain in the abdomen, problems with urine flow or pain during sexual intercourse. Rarely, a very large cyst can become twisted and stop its own blood supply, possibly causing nausea, fever or severe abdominal pain. Functional ovarian cysts form part of the normal functioning of the ovary and are always benign. They may be either "follicular cysts", produced by all menstruating women every month and reaching up to 2-3cm in diameter before they rupture at ovulation, or "corpus luteum cysts", which appear after ovulation and may grow to produce "hemorrhagic cysts" if ovulation does not occur or is delayed. Rupture of such a cyst can sometimes cause painful ovulation or bleeding, which is often moderate and resolves by itself. Organic ovarian cysts may be benign or malignant and are not linked to the functioning of the ovary. They occur as either "dermoid cysts", which are benign tumors that may nevertheless recur on either ovary and contain elements derived from the skin (hairs, sebum, teeth), or other organic cysts.
Polyp: A usually nonmalignant growth or tumor protruding from the mucous lining of an organ such as the nose, bladder or intestine, often causing obstruction.
Steroid: Any of a large number of hormonal substances with a similar basic chemical structure containing a 17-carbon 14-ring system and including the sterols and various hormones and glycosides.
Uterine Fibroids: Fibroids are the most frequently seen tumors of the female reproductive system. Also known as uterine myomas, leiomyomas, or fibromas, they are firm, compact tumors that are made of smooth muscle cells and fibrous connective tissue that develop in the uterus. In more than 99% of cases they are benign (non-cancerous). They may range in size from the size of a pea to the size of a softball or small grapefruit. Some women never have symptoms, the most common of which are: heavy or prolonged menstrual periods; abnormal bleeding between menstrual periods; pelvic pain; frequent urination; low back pain; pain during intercourse; a firm mass, often located near the middle of the pelvis, which can be felt by a physician.